Database Management Basics

Database management is the process for managing information that aids an organization’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to application programs and users and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting damaged due to unexpected failure. It is an integral part of the informational infrastructure of a business that assists in decision making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) that enabled the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a variety of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data in accordance with an established pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and permits cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about data entities. The most widely used kind of database is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It is also simpler to update data because it does not require the changing of several databases.

The majority of DBMSs support a variety of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability, and other operational issues including the layout of the physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database is displayed in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of various external views based on different data models and could include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data in order to improve the performance.